New ABC code release departs (further) from Nakamoto consensus

Bitcoin ABC has just released its Bitcoin ABC 0.18.5 that adds “deep reorg protection” which will effectively render blocks permanent once confirmed ten times.

Feedback on the update, as announced on Twitter, Reddit, and other forums, was quick and critical, with many indicating the proof-of-work (PoW) system subverted to whoever first manages to get ten confirmations. However, ABC explained the feature was a “safeguard” that “helps users, businesses, and exchanges stay secure and free from disruption.”

nChain lead developer Steve Shadders tweeted his reaction to the update, saying, “Nakamoto consensus is now dead on the ABC chain… They do not believe in bitcoin.”

Under Nakamoto consensus, the more confirmations of a block, the higher the probability of being accepted by the network. Miners are thus incentivized to devote sufficient hash power for their operations, and receive a reward for blocks mined.

Yours.org creator Money Button had earlier criticized ABC’s use of “endless checkpoints” as not being of a decentralized protocol, which leads one to question if ABC should still be considered Bitcoin at all.

Defending the reorg-protection feature on Reddit was Olivier Janssens, Bitcoin entrepreneur, who said that in the event of a malicious miner mining blocks, full nodes will be able to not accept the blocks anyway. This is assuming ABC nodes could consistently make a distinction between honest and malicious miners.

Bitcoin SV’s developer nChain had long warned of ABC using Bitcoin BCH as a developer’s experimental playground. Reorg protection is just the latest of several code changes since the November 15 hard fork, that appear as ABC’s means of defending itself while the hash war between it and Bitcoin SV continues.

As far as CoinGeek is concerned, such changes by ABC weren’t arrived at by consultation with those in the BCH community. Miners who don’t like the changes, however, do have Bitcoin SV as an option where miners’ choice is a priority while maintaining the strength and stability of the Bitcoin protocol.

Note: Tokens on the Bitcoin Core (segwit) Chain are Referred to as BTC coins. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is today the only Bitcoin implementation that follows Satoshi Nakamoto’s original whitepaper for Peer to Peer Electronic Cash. Bitcoin BCH is the only major public blockchain that maintains the original vision for Bitcoin as fast, frictionless, electronic cash.

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New ABC code release departs (further) from Nakamoto consensus

Bitcoin ABC has just released its Bitcoin ABC 0.18.5 that adds “deep reorg protection” which will effectively render blocks permanent once confirmed ten times.

Feedback on the update, as announced on Twitter, Reddit, and other forums, was quick and critical, with many indicating the proof-of-work (PoW) system subverted to whoever first manages to get ten confirmations. However, ABC explained the feature was a “safeguard” that “helps users, businesses, and exchanges stay secure and free from disruption.”

nChain lead developer Steve Shadders tweeted his reaction to the update, saying, “Nakamoto consensus is now dead on the ABC chain… They do not believe in bitcoin.”

Under Nakamoto consensus, the more confirmations of a block, the higher the probability of being accepted by the network. Miners are thus incentivized to devote sufficient hash power for their operations, and receive a reward for blocks mined.

Yours.org creator Money Button had earlier criticized ABC’s use of “endless checkpoints” as not being of a decentralized protocol, which leads one to question if ABC should still be considered Bitcoin at all.

Defending the reorg-protection feature on Reddit was Olivier Janssens, Bitcoin entrepreneur, who said that in the event of a malicious miner mining blocks, full nodes will be able to not accept the blocks anyway. This is assuming ABC nodes could consistently make a distinction between honest and malicious miners.

Bitcoin SV’s developer nChain had long warned of ABC using Bitcoin BCH as a developer’s experimental playground. Reorg protection is just the latest of several code changes since the November 15 hard fork, that appear as ABC’s means of defending itself while the hash war between it and Bitcoin SV continues.

As far as CoinGeek is concerned, such changes by ABC weren’t arrived at by consultation with those in the BCH community. Miners who don’t like the changes, however, do have Bitcoin SV as an option where miners’ choice is a priority while maintaining the strength and stability of the Bitcoin protocol.

Note: Tokens on the Bitcoin Core (segwit) Chain are Referred to as BTC coins. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is today the only Bitcoin implementation that follows Satoshi Nakamoto’s original whitepaper for Peer to Peer Electronic Cash. Bitcoin BCH is the only major public blockchain that maintains the original vision for Bitcoin as fast, frictionless, electronic cash.

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Bitcoin BCH hash war will be decided by sustained – not temporary, rented – hash power

16 November 2018 – With the Bitcoin BCH network upgrade on November 15, a hash war has begun with miners voting between Bitcoin SV and Bitcoin ABC – two competing implementations of the BCH protocol. As fully expected, Bitcoin ABC appeared to take a temporary lead on the first day by receiving an artificial boost from temporary, “rented” hash power subsidized by Roger Ver’s organization Bitcoin.com, which announced it would use its pool customer hash on BCH for just 24 hours, and from ABC’s main supporter Bitmain Technologies, the Chinese manufacturer of crypto mining rigs. However, Bitcoin SV has strong support from CoinGeek, the largest BCH miner, and nChain, the leading blockchain research & development firm. CoinGeek and nChain have the resources to fight long term with their own sustained hash, long after Bitmain cannot afford to bleed money for rented hash.  Therefore, the BCH hash war will not be decided in 1 or 2 days, but over many days and possibly weeks by on-going miner votes with sustained Proof of Work. Until a dominant chain emerges, cryptocurrency exchanges, wallet and service providers are advised to remain neutral, and to run a Bitcoin SV node to be prepared for the best interests of users.

CoinGeek founder Calvin Ayre expressed his determination to fight the BCH hash war as long as it takes:

“CoinGeek and nChain are in this battle for the long haul. We will mine BCH and fight as long as it takes to protect the original Bitcoin from Bitmain, Jihan Wu, and their Bitcoin ABC development group who all want to change BCH into some alt-coin Wormhole token technology. Roger Ver’s company Bitcoin.com is subsidizing hash for only 24 hours, taken from his own customers. As for Bitmain, to keep up with us in this hash war, Bitmain will have to spend millions of dollars a day from its investors’ money and shareholder assets, while also trying to raise more investor money for its shaky IPO. This will bleed Bitmain’s cash and cryptocurrency reserves, because we are prepared to fight for months and months. If I were a shareholder or investor in Bitmain, I’d be asking why Jihan Wu is spending all your money to control BCH when Bitmain’s business supports multiple cryptocurrencies.”

Bitcoin SV is the new full node implementation for Bitcoin Cash that seeks to restore the original “Satoshi Vision” for Bitcoin and allow it to massively scale. For the November 15 upgrade, Bitcoin SV’s feature set is not compatible with that of competing client Bitcoin ABC. When there is a disagreement between rule sets, the original Bitcoin white paper described the “Nakamoto consensus” method for miners to vote with their computing power (1 CPU = 1 vote) to enforce any rules: “The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it.”

The current hash war is the world’s first test of Nakamoto consensus. After the November 15 upgrade, Bitcoin ABC appeared to temporarily lead with a higher portion of the BCH network’s total hash power. But ABC’s perceived first-day advantage comes from a sudden burst of hash presumably rented from the Bitcoin Core (BTC) network to move over to BCH. By November 14, the day before the hard fork, Bitcoin SV’s support consistently grew for weeks and dominated with a clear 72-78% lead over ABC (18-22%):

Bitcoin BCH Hash War Will be Decided by Sustained – Not Temporary, Rented - Hash Power

Bitcoin BCH Hash War Will be Decided by Sustained – Not Temporary, Rented - Hash Power
[Source: Cash.Coin.Dance, 14 November 2018]

Bitcoin ABC even dropped to tying for 3rd place with Bitcoin Unlimited, another implementation which is compatible (as a configurable option) with both Bitcoin SV and Bitcoin ABC rule sets.

Yet suddenly on the November 15 upgrade date, a huge wave of hash magically came to support Bitcoin ABC. This came from Bitcoin.com’s pool which announced it was boosting its BCH hash for only 24 hours, by moving customer hash from the BTC chain. In addition, Bitcoin ABC is receiving more support from “rented” or subsidized from BTC mining pools controlled by (Antpool.com, BTC.com, ViaBTC) or friendly (BTC.top) to Bitmain. To obtain rented hash, Bitmain must pay to subsidize the difference in lower revenue miners receive on the BCH chain when total hash rate grows, compared to mining on the more profitable BTC network. BTC.top’s CEO Jiang Zhuoer estimates this can cost over 100 million yuan or USD $14 million per day. The rented hash supporting Bitcoin ABC is temporary, and will leave the BCH network when not subsidized. This is a losing proposition for Bitmain; each day a hash war continues, Bitmain must pay millions of dollars to give Bitcoin ABC an artificial advantage. But when Bitmain can no longer afford to pay for it, the rented hash will leave BCH and Bitcoin SV will again dominate by virtue of its long-term, sustained hash support.

In contrast, Bitcoin SV’s support comes from CoinGeek and nChain’s BMG mining groups, which are 100% dedicated to support Bitcoin SV with their genuine hash. SVPool, a personal initiative of nChain Chief Scientist Craig Wright and the newly-formed Mempool also run Bitcoin SV; those pools gather miners supporting the Satoshi Vision and do not pay added subsidies to miners beyond the amount actually earned from participating in their pools.

Ayre explained why sustained hash power should decide:

Bitcoin is about Proof of Work (PoW), not Proof of Rented Hash (PoRH). To decide which chain should be the true Bitcoin BCH, you should pick the longest chain with the most legitimate, sustained Proof of Work invested. It is ridiculous to count transient, rented hash which comes onto BCH artificially for short bursts of time because it is subsidized to do so, but then disappears and does not really sustain Proof of Work on the network. That is like paying a person to show up in a foreign country to vote in a political election, without meeting citizenship requirements to vote. At CoinGeek’s BCH Miners Choice Summit on November 2, we were offered thousands and thousands of petahash to rent for this battle. While we can afford to pay for more rented hash than Bitmain can, we decided to set a better precedent for Bitcoin and fight with honest hash invested to support BCH long term.”

Note: Tokens on the Bitcoin Core (segwit) Chain are Referred to as BTC coins. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is today the only Bitcoin implementation that follows Satoshi Nakamoto’s original whitepaper for Peer to Peer Electronic Cash. Bitcoin BCH is the only major public blockchain that maintains the original vision for Bitcoin as fast, frictionless, electronic cash.

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比特币现金(BCH)哈希算力大战将由持续的——非临时,也非租赁的算力决定

20181116日——随着11月15日比特币现金(BCH)网络升级,矿工们在Bitcoin SV和Bitcoin ABC(两个竞争的比特币现金协议实现方式)之间投票掀起了哈希算力大战。不出意料,Bitcoin ABC在第一天看起来取得了暂时领先,是因为它的人为推动是来自于Roger Ver的公司Bitcoin.com所补贴的临时“租赁”算力(其宣布将在比特币现金上使用其矿池客户算力仅24小时),以及来自于ABC的主要支持者中国加密货币矿机制造商比特大陆(Bitmain Technologies)。然而,Bitcoin SV得到了最大的比特币现金矿业巨头CoinGeek和领先的区块链技术研发公司nChain的大力支持。CoinGeek和nChain有足够的资源用他们自己的持续算力进行持久战,而Bitmain终将因租赁算力而资金枯竭。因此,BCH哈希算力大战不会在12天内决定,而是通过持续的工作量证明所进行的矿工投票在许多天甚至数周内决定。在主导链出现之前,建议加密货币交易所、钱包和服务供应商保持中立,并运行Bitcoin SV节点,以便为保护用户的最佳利益做好准备。

CoinGeek创始人卡尔文·艾尔(Calivin Ayre)表达了他将长期进行比特币现金哈希算力大战的决心:

“CoinGeek和nChain联手参与这场持久战。我们将挖掘比特币现金(BCH)并为原始的比特币而战,保护其免受比特大陆(Bitmain)、吴忌寒(Jihan Wu)以及他们的Bitcoin ABC开发组的影响,因为他们都想将比特币现金(BCH)改为某种代币的虫洞技术。Roger Ver的公司Bitcoin.com正在用取自他自己客户的算力进行补贴,而且仅维持24小时。至于比特大陆(Bitmain),为了跟上我们在这场哈希算力大战中的步伐,将不得不每天从投资者的资金和股东资产中花费数百万美元,同时还试图通过摇摇欲坠的IPO筹集更多的投资者资金。我们已为数月的战斗做好了准备,这将把比特大陆(Bitmain)现金流和加密货币储备拖到枯竭。如果我是比特大陆(Bitmain)的股东或投资人,我会问吴忌寒,如果比特大陆(Bitmain)的业务同时支持多种加密货币,为什么你要把所有的钱花在控制比特币现金(BCH)上。”

Bitcoin SV是全新的比特币现金全节点实现,旨在恢复原始的比特币“中本聪愿景”并允许其大规模扩容。对于11月15日的升级,Bitcoin SV的功能设定与竞争客户端Bitcoin ABC互不兼容。当规则集存在分歧时,最初的比特币白皮书描述了“中本聪共识”方法,指导矿工以其计算能力(1 CPU = 1票)投票来执行任何规则:“多数派决定应由最长的链来表示,因为有最大工作量证明投入其中。”

当前的哈希算力大战是世界上第一次对“中本聪共识”的考验。11月15日升级后,Bitcoin ABC看起来以略高份额的比特币现金网络总算力暂时领先。但ABC第一天的优势来自突然爆发的算力,据推测,其算力可能是从比特币核心钱包Bitcoin Core (BTC) 网络租用转移到比特币现金(BCH)。截至11月14日,也就是硬分叉的前一天,Bitcoin SV的支持持续增长了数周,并以72-78%遥遥领先ABC(18-22%):

Bitcoin BCH Hash War Will be Decided by Sustained – Not Temporary, Rented - Hash Power

Bitcoin BCH Hash War Will be Decided by Sustained – Not Temporary, Rented - Hash Power
[Source: Cash.Coin.Dance, 14 November 2018]

Bitcoin ABC甚至下降到与Bitcoin Unlimited竞争第三名。Bitcoin Unlimited是另一个实现方式,兼容Bitcoin SV及Bitcoin ABC双方规则集(作为一个可配置的选项)。

然而,就在11月15日升级当天,突然有一股支持Bitcoin ABC的哈希算力浪潮神奇出现。这是来自Bitcoin.com的矿池,该矿池宣布其在通过转移比特币(BTC)链上的客户算力来推升其比特币现金(BCH)算力,且仅持续24小时。此外,Bitcoin ABC正在收到的更多支持是来自比特币矿池(Antpool、BTC.com和ViaBTC)或与其关系密切的矿池(BTC.top)的“租赁”或补贴。为了租赁的算力,比特大陆(Bitmain)必须支付补贴收益差额,因为在总哈希算力增加时,与在比特币(BTC)网络上挖矿相比,矿工们在比特币现金(BCH)链上的收益较低。BTC.top的首席执行官江卓尔(Jiang Zhuoer)估计,这可能每天花费超过1亿元人民币或1400万美元。支持Bitcoin ABC的租用哈希算力是暂时的,并且在未获得补贴时将离开比特币现金(BCH)网络。对比特大陆(Bitmain)来说,这是一桩亏本生意;哈希算力大战每天都在继续,比特大陆(Bitmain)必须花费上百万美元为 Bitcoin ABC 创造优势。但当比特大陆(Bitmain)再也不能支付庞大的费用,租来的哈希算力将离开比特币现金(BCH),Bitcoin SV将再次凭借其长期、持续的哈希算力支持,重返主导地位。

相比之下,Bitcoin SV的支持来自CoinGeek和nChain的BMG挖矿团队,它们100%致力于用真正的算力支持Bitcoin SV。由nChain首席科学家克雷格·怀特(Craig Wright)个人倡议的SVPool及新建的Mempool也在运行Bitcoin SV;这些矿池将矿工汇聚起来支持中本聪愿景,并且不向矿工支付超出参与矿池实际收益的额外补贴。

艾尔解释了为什么应该要由持续的算力来决定:

对比特币来说,考虑的是工作量证明(PoW),而不是租赁哈希算力证明(PoRH)。为了决定哪个链应该是真正的比特币现金(BCH),人们应该选择最长的链,其拥有合法持久的工作量证明。计算暂时、租用的哈希算力是非常荒谬的 ,其算力来自于短时间内对BCH的人为操作,因为他们可以得到补贴,但是他们最终都会消失,这并不能真正地维持网络上的工作量证明。这就像付钱给一个不符合公民身份要求的人,让他去外国参加政治选举投票。在11月2日CoinGeek的BCH矿工选择峰会上,有成千上万的petahash愿意为了这场战争供我们租用。虽然我们有能力租用比比特大陆(Bitmain)更多的哈希算力,我们还是决定树立一个更好的榜样,并用诚实的哈希算力作战来长远地支持比特币现金。”

Note: Tokens on the Bitcoin Core (segwit) Chain are Referred to as BTC coins. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is today the only Bitcoin implementation that follows Satoshi Nakamoto’s original whitepaper for Peer to Peer Electronic Cash. Bitcoin BCH is the only major public blockchain that maintains the original vision for Bitcoin as fast, frictionless, electronic cash.

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